Saturday, October 24, 2009

Samhain – Walking Between the Worlds

Fire red, summer's dead,
Yet shall it return.
Clear and bright in the night,
Burn, fire, burn!

Dance the ring, luck to bring,
When the year's aturning.
Chant the rhyme at Hallowstime,
When the fire's burning.

Fire glow, vision show
Of the heart's desire,
When the spell's chanted well
Of the witching fire.

Dance the ring, luck to bring,
When the year's aturning.
Chant the rhyme at Hallowstime,
When the fire's burning.

Fire spark, when nights are dark,
Makes our winter's mirth.
Red leaves fall, earth takes all,
Brings them to rebirth.

Dance the ring, luck to bring,
When the year's aturning.
Chant the rhyme at Hallowstime,
When the fire's burning.

Fire fair, earth and air,
And the heaven's rain,
And blessed be, and so may we,
At Hallowstide again.

Dance the ring, luck to bring,
When the year's aturning.
Chant the rhyme at Hallowstime,
When the fire's burning.

- Doreen Valiente

Samhain (pronounced "SOW-en") is one of the most popular, and often most misunderstood, Sabbats in the Witches' Calendar. You might know of it as Hallowe'en or All Hallows. Within the context of the Wheel of the Year, Samhain is a Fire Festival – this is a Sabbat which is not connected to either a solstice or equinox type solar event. Most people - pagans included - celebrate Samhain on October 31st, but you may find that some pagans celebrate this festival as early as the October full moon (also known as “Blood Moon”) and as late as 2 weeks thereafter depending on astrological variables. In some Traditions, this day marks the beginning AND the end of the Witches calendar year. Within the context of the Wheel of the Year, Samhain is a fire festival. A Fire Festival is a Sabbat which is not connected to either a solstice or equinox type solar event.

The word Samhain comes from both old Irish and Scots Gaelic meaning “summer's end”, which indeed it is. Look around you; the leaves are beginning to turn colors and fall to the ground and you can definitely feel a chill in the air. However it’s important to remember that Europeans don't have a monopoly on this date. In Latin America, specifically in Mexico, El Dia de los Muertos, or the Day of the Dead, is the celebration. Although today’s pagans tend to focus more on the Indo-European version of this day, I recommend taking the time to learn more about El Dia de los Muertos to discover the beautiful symbolism and imagery there as well. Many pagans incorporate these Latin American themes into their own practice, especially if they have a personal biological or sociological connection.

There are three harvest celebrations in the Wheel of the Year. The first harvest is Lughnassadh (sometimes called Litha) which we celebrated at the end of July. Litha is a harvest of joy, when the berries are just becoming ripe and we are just beginning to experience summer’s bounty. The second harvest is Mabon (the Fall Equinox). This was on September 20th, and is a type of Pagan Thanksgiving. Mabon is when the bulk of the harvest is reaped and is a harvest of thanks to the gifts of the Earth.

Samhain is the third harvest, and is sometimes called the Bitter Harvest. This is when we collect and preserve the last of the growing season- gourds and root vegetables, legumes and long lasting fruits like apples (ever wonder why people bob for apples or use gourds for jack o’lanterns at this time of year?). In years past, our agrarian forebears would take stock of their grain supplies and identify the animals not expected to live throughout the winter which would sustain their families throughout the winter. Some pagans refer to the time between Samhain and Imbolc (February 2nd) as the Dark Time. Not only is it when our ancestors would take shelter in their homes to survive the harsh winters, but on a spiritual level, it is a time for us to be introspective, to reflect upon our own spiritual year and see what kinds of harvests we have collected and what goals we wish to strive for in the next iteration of the Wheel of the Year.

Samhain marks the time of the Crone or the Dark Lady, which is one aspect of the Triple Goddess. Like many of my pagan brothers and sisters, I have a strong connection to the Crone. But why is the Crone so important to Paganism? In ancient societies, blood was the symbol of life, power and wisdom – and any cycle or ritual that included blood was honored and revered. Before we had science and medicine to explain the rhythms and cycles of our bodies, the concept of women's cycles was viewed as mysterious and powerful and often frightening. After all, how could a woman bleed regularly for so long but not take a wound or die? As a woman aged and became wiser, this cycle would end and that wisdom would then remain inside her. Due to this "holding of the wisdom", she then was allowed admittance into the council of elders of her tribe or community. She was the one who instructed her community about what would heal them and what would sustain them throughout difficult times; in doing so, she became the direct conduit to the Gods. The Crone was the one person allowed to be at births as midwife and healer, yet was also necessary to attend those whose lives were ending. She brought life into the world and when life was ended, she accompanied the dead across the Veil and entrusted the spirit of the deceased to the Goddess. In that lay her greatest Mystery.

You may often hear that this time is "when the Veil is thin"; this means that the boundaries between this world and the Otherworld - the spirit world, the astral, Akashic records, shadow realm - are blurred and it is much easier to communicate back and forth. Some say this is due to the fact that it is the end and beginning of the Wheel, others say it is because the Crone walks freely between those worlds, she grants us the same ease at Samhain. Many of our Hallowe'en customs come from the belief that the departed and the living could share the same space at this time of year. Jack o' Lanterns (originally carved from turnips!) are lit to guide our departed loved ones to their families in this world. Masks, costumes and carved gourds are placed in windows to frighten off malevolent spirits and keep away bad luck. “Trick or Treat!” was said to appease any spirit who got lost and happened to knock on your door – people would give treats (cakes, food, ale) to avoid accidentally offending a spirit who lost their way or didn’t have anywhere to go. Families would set out an extra place at the table for their loved ones, and some of these traditions turned into what is now called a Dumb Supper ("dumb" means “silent” in this instance, not “stupid”); a Dumb Supper is marked by the fact that one does not speak during the entirety of the meal. The silence is out of respect for the dead who are being honored.

Because the Veil is thin, it’s the perfect time for divination, to see what will come to pass over the next year and what you should be striving for. This is the time to appeal to the Crone for her wisdom and strength, to see the future, but more importantly, use that knowledge to make the best decisions for yourself and those you love. Of course, the Tarot and scrying (scrying is using a focus for divination) are both popular divinatory methods, but if you’re feeling adventurous, try using a mirror or even getting a bowl of water and dropping melted candle wax in it and seeing what shapes form. For others, runes and the ancient art of bone throwing is particularly appropriate divination activities. Bonfires are very popular at Samhain, and if you have access to one, it’s a magickal experience, when you can also use the embers/coals of the sacred fire to divine the future. No matter what oracle you use, it will be especially sensitive this time of year. Take advantage of having this strong connection to Spirit, and see what the Gods have to tell you!

Certainly this is a time when we are very aware of those who have crossed over this past year, and this is a very important part of our celebrations. Do remember that we’re not just talking about people– animals are as much family to us as any human, especially those who were our companions and friends in life. Pagans have many ways of honoring those who have passed away. Sometimes it’s as simple as setting a place for them at the table on Samhain evening; we will also fill a glass of wine for them and then give it back to the earth (pour it into the ground) when we’re done. This practice is known as “libation”. You can also create an altar for those who have crossed over who have made an impact in your life. Decorate this mini altar with pictures, items, candles and other things and spend some time there on Samhain thanking them for sharing their life with you and share some memories with those who might not have known them as well. Take a walk to a graveyard with some late autumn flowers or loaves of bread (or small rolls/cookies) and share them with the departed, letting them know they’re not forgotten.

It’s important for many pagan parents to be able to appropriately share Sabbats with their families, and our Little Witchlings can certainly participate in Samhain’s festivities. As a parent, only you can make the determination about what is right for your children, but know that although Samhain deals with some pretty heavy spiritual themes, it still can be made fun and educational for them too. If you choose to honor those who have died, allow your little ones to share what they remember of the departed person or pet. They can help with decorations and pumpkin carving, and parents can share information about Hallowe’en customs today hearken to our pagan past. Read stories about Crone goddesses from all kinds of cultures – from Hecate, to Cerridwen, Tiamat, Kali Ma, Baba Yaga, Nepthys, Tlazolteotl, Washer at the Ford, Elli, and more. There are even coloring books for pagan kids for Samhain ( is just one of many) and activity books for them.

No matter how you celebrate Samhain – whether it be by a full Dumb Supper or giving out candy to the local kids with the knowledge that it symbolizes the bounty of the Gods – this Sabbat marks the time when we spend time inwardly to grow and learn from ourselves, from others (both those here and those who’ve crossed), and from the Gods. I wish you all an abundant harvest, and may the Crone give you all the knowledge and wisdom to take care of yourselves and your loved ones throughout the Dark Time.

Written in honor of Lady Sequannah, Lady Ellen and Caliban who were found worthy to serve the Universal Spirit, but in so doing had to leave us behind. We thank you for being part of our world, and honor your contribution to our lives and our community. Save a chair and mug of mead for me at the Sacred Flame!

Saturday, October 17, 2009

The Frugal Pagan

In this economic climate, many of us have tightened our belts a bit more than ever. But being careful with our finances doesn’t mean we have to skimp on the things which we enjoy in ritual and our every day spirituality.

My first teacher always told me that a Witch’s most important tool was his/her mind. But we are visceral human beings who love beautiful things. Who among us hasn’t gawked at some gorgeous magickal item and said, “Oooh pretty shiny! I want!”. I am very guilty of this!

It’s great to have beautiful things on our altars, in our closets, in our homes and on our person that have special meaning to us and celebrate our spiritual connection with Deity. There’s an indefinable feeling when you’ve found that perfect piece or outfit or jewelry that just sings your name. Certainly, there are times when a particular piece or tool just calls to you and you HAVE to have it. Until you find that piece, however, you might just be waiting for it to show itself to you. And neither your permanent or interim pieces have to be opulent or expensive to be sacred.

You will find that your local pagan shop often carries lovely things created by craftspeople to use in your practice, and they’re always getting in new things for you to check out. But if they don’t have exactly what you’re looking for at a particular time, there’s nothing wrong with employing used or found items to enhance your stash of magickal tools. In fact, found/created items can hold as much or more power as anything else you can buy. Whether your item is bought or found or created, you can imbue these things with your personal power and intent, and that is what makes the item sacred. There are some traditions and groups who insist that your first magickal tools be made by your own hand, just so you can learn how to recognize what tools work for you and which ones are just aesthetically nice. Many pagans have multiple tools, some of their own creation, and some which are bought.

Here are a few ideas you can use in your own quest for magickal pieces.

Wands: Wands are an extension of your spirit, and it represents the element of fire, male energy and directed action. Your wand is the tool of transformation and change. A wand is often made of wood, and about as long as the practitioner’s forearm. Many times, you can find a thin straight branch to be the perfect size and shape to make a wand. Driftwood and dead wood in any stand of trees can be great sources of wandmaking. Try to refrain from cutting on a live tree, however. If you feel you absolutely must cut a branch off of a tree, make sure you ask the tree’s permission and thank the tree profusely (perhaps bring it a little offering) afterwards. If you can, research the wood you choose and find out what magickal properties the wood brings to the tool itself. Ask yourself if those are the qualities you want to bring into your Circle. Inspect the wood, and make sure it’s free of parasites, fungus or any other creepy crawlies that you don’t want in your home! Once you’ve chosen an appropriate piece of wood, you can carve it, shellac it, sand it, or just leave it in its natural state. You can add ribbons, leather strips, feathers, gemstones, charms, shells, or any other affectations which have a special meaning for you.

Athames: An Athame is a knife-like tool made of metal, which is used to direct energy within your Circle – but never to cut things (we use a Boline for that purpose). Most of us – me included – are not metal smiths, so for the most part, you will need to buy this tool. Traditionally, the Athame is black handled and the blade should be the length of your hand, from the bottom of your palm to the tip of your longest finger. But that’s not a hard & fast rule in Wicca today. There’s nothing wrong with using similar pieces to use as your Athame. Witches everywhere use letter openers, martial arts throwing knives, and other items. A trip to your local thrift shop or novelty shop might net you a beautiful piece. Please remember that like the wood for your wand, you should research the metal you’re bringing in Circle.

Ritual Jewelry: The Gods already find us beautiful just as we are. But jewelry is another way we can adorn ourselves in something special and sacred. Craft stores have tons of beading resources that we can take advantage of if you’re so inclined. If you’re really crafty, you can even MAKE your own beads from magazine paper and glue by cutting thin strips of glossy colorful magazine pages – advertisements are the best for this. First you cover the strips with crafting glue such as Mod Podge (it dries pretty clear). Then you roll it tightly around a straight pin. Anchor your pin & bead in florist foam or other pin cushion and allow it to dry. When your beads are completely hardened and dry, take the pin out and you will have a finished bead with a hole for threading on a wire or cord! Not only are these very pretty, it’s a very cool way of recycling old magazines which in turn honors Mother Earth. Bonus! You can also add some pizzazz to your ritual gear by including feathers, or recycled beads/ribbons/material from other outfits to make something uniquely yours.

Other tools can be found or made for a bargain. An altar cloth can be made of silk handkerchiefs or leftover material from a previous project. Chalices and offering bowls can be found at thrift/novelty shops or even be your favorite wine glass specifically saved for sacred rituals.

Keep your eyes and mind open. Sacred tools are everywhere, and you don’t have to spend a fortune to have your very own.

Monday, October 12, 2009

Mirth and Reverence in the Craft

“…Let My worship be within the heart that rejoiceth, for behold, all acts of love and pleasure are My rituals. And therefore let there be beauty and strength, power and compassion, honor and humility, mirth and reverence with you…” – (part of) The Charge of the Goddess, Doreen Valiente

Many of us who were brought up in a religious environment were taught that ceremonies, worship and ritual were meant to be very serious business. There was often little or no laughing allowed. As we found our Pagan paths, we brought that solemnity along in our own rituals. Being mirthful is nothing more than being joyful and having a little laugh.

But isn’t laughter and humor part of being human? As Priests and Priestesses in the Craft, we are encouraged to honor all parts of being human, because we are a reflection of the Divine. So, how do we reconcile the sacred and the seemingly profane? Can we find a happy medium between solemnity and our senses of humor?

Our pagan teachings tell us that we are humans, and as such, we are fallible. It’s happened to all of us: we attend or lead a ritual and say the wrong line at the wrong time, forget what quarter belongs to a particular element, mess up a chant, panic as the cat sets her tail afire on the God candle, a circle-mate (or the host’s Chihuahua) accidentally toots during the meditation, etc. There’s no need to be embarrassed or upset. It is a reminder of who we are and what we are. Smile and accept it as a gift from the Universe!

I believe that we should make room in our pagan lives for both mirth and reverence. The Gods, the Universe and Spirit itself all have a sense of humor – why can’t we? In my coven, we often say, “Laughter is the benediction of the Goddess”. Humor and laughter are beautiful qualities that make us whole. The Gods want ALL of us in ritual. Not just the serious part of us – they want the silly part, the powerful part, the humble part, and every other part that makes us who we are.

Levity can be important in Circle due to the seriousness of the actual ritual itself. It helps us to appreciate the solemnity of the occasion by giving us a little break from being totally immersed in the intense experience of our Divine connection. An example can be seen in my Tradition where we have a ritual that honors the Female Mysteries every Midsummer. The men of our coven know the women go off by ourselves, very solemnly and quietly. And when we return, we’re giggling and perhaps a little tipsy as well. The ritual is certainly about what it means to be a woman – the pain and the joy. Men have their own sacred mysteries which are important for them to honor. It’s vital for us to acknowledge that in order to be a whole person, we need to honor the serious parts of ourselves as well as the silly parts too.

One should never be afraid of laughing when it’s appropriate. What I mean by the term “appropriate” is simply that we should all be aware of our surroundings and ensure that the humor we display is respectful to the Gods and the people around us. Knowing this is a combination of experience and intuition. But always remember this: mirth should always be tempered with reverence. Like life, you need to be aware of your surroundings and audience before deciding to become your spiritual group’s very own standup comic. It’s one thing to tell your covenmate that she’s channeling the Crone because her joints cracked loudly in Circle. It’s another thing to call the Crone an “ol’ broad”, even as a joke. Certainly, disrespect is never funny.

You should always try to make sure your humor is shared by others, because what you might find hilarious may be offensive to someone else. It’s always a good idea to steer away from topics which might cross the line into gender or racial stereotypes or other hurtful topics.

Please allow me to share a personal story of mirth, in the form of a Goddess who has attached herself to my Tradition. Her name is Nunumi, and she has found her way to many other pagans over the years. Perhaps you might even see her at your next ritual or celebration!

Nunumi is the Goddess of Botched Rituals, and is beloved by my Tradition-mates and many others. She first showed up at the end of a very long Initiation ritual over 20 years ago. Traditionally, at the end of an Initiation, a sponsor stands before the Gods and introduces the newest Initiate. Part of the words go: “Welcome PixieMoonDrip (or whatever the Initiate’s name is), newly made Priestess and Witch”. However, after 3 days of fasting, and an 8 hour intensive ritual, the sponsor’s words came out as “Welcome PixieMoonDrip, *Nunumi* Priestess and Witch”. The Initiate being introduced happened to be my Sire Priestess…and she in turn introduced Nunumi to the rest of us over the years. Now, whenever someone goofs up in Circle, or the Priest forgets his words, or the Priestess trips over her robe, we know that Nunumi is making her presence known and we all say “Hail Nunumi!” in the hopes that by acknowledging her, the rest of the ritual will go smoothly!

There are many ways to have fun in Paganism, and perhaps you’ve experienced some of these. Songs & filks are one of the most popular ways for pagans to share joy with each other in a social setting. Filks are songs that are either created songs, or use the melodies of popular music which add words specific to a particular genre. Filks were first made popular in the science fiction world, and since many pagans are also sci-fi fans, we saw a “filking” crossover in the 1970’s. A favorite filk you might hear at a pagan gathering goes to the tune of the American spiritual song “Old Time Religion” where everyone chimes in with the chorus and laughs at the variety of the (hundreds of) stanzas. A quick search on the internet will turn up more information on this topic.

Most any pagan can tell you a myriad of stories about the funny things they’ve experienced at pagan festivals, gatherings, Circles and the like. These funny moments (or hours) can lay the foundations for the most amazing memories of people and places in the Craft. I can remember warm nights in the California mountains during Pacific Circle decades ago; making up filks and drinking mulled cider with pagan friends, new & old. We laughed and sang around the sacred fire until dawn. And for me, those are the sweetest memories of all. While I still remember the rituals and the workshops, I have much more vivid memories of the fun.

There are even rituals out there specifically designed with mirth in mind. In your pagan travels, you might come across a Chocolate Ritual or even a “Bill The Cat” initiation. Incorporating something whimsical in your ritual gear, or leaving an offering of a shot of Godiva Chocolate Liquor to appease Aphrodite can also be fun ideas. You can search the Web for Redneck Pagan Jokes, Pagan Light Bulb jokes, and more!

Not everyone is comfortable with being silly in Circle, but that’s an individual choice. You are the only person who can determine what level of humor you are comfortable with in a spiritual setting. But don’t be afraid of humor, and know that there is a place in our pagan lives and rituals where our laughter rings as bells to the Lady’s ears.

The Goddess tells us she wants us to come to her with mirth AND reverence. We shouldn’t forget either of these things in our pagan practice.

Hail Nunumi!

We will worship with our coven

Where there’ll be a lotta lovin’

Quit yer pushin’ and yer shovin’

So there’ll be room enough for me!

- One of the hundreds of stanzas sung to the tune of “That Old Time Religion”

     ¸.•´¸.•*´¨) ¸.•*¨) Flags, Flax & Fodder, ¸.•´¸.•*´¨) ¸.•*¨)
     (¸.•´ (¸.•`                    Kaerwyn             (¸.•´ (¸.•`

Wednesday, October 7, 2009

Remembering Ellen Cannon Reed

Today has much meaning for me, because it marks the 6th anniversary of the passing of one of the most amazing and inspiring Priestesses I have ever had the honor to know – Ellen Cannon Reed. Ellen was an authoress, wife, visionary, High Priestess of Coven Sothistar, activist, and friend.

Let me share a few of my experiences with Ellen, keeping names out to protect privacy. Ellen was the best friend of a woman who become one of my Sire Priestesses, Sandy Kopf…but *I* met Ellen in the early summer of 1993 when I was living in Southern California. I had just had an incredibly traumatic June: I lost my job, broke up with my boyfriend of 3 years, lost my coven & home (I was living with covenmates and the boyfriend who were all in the same coven), and I had to move back with the parental units. All this occurred in the span of 48 hours! I searched for the Gods, but they were nowhere to be found. I guess you could call it a crisis of faith.

This previous coven had a long and sordid history with Ellen, not surprising as witch wars were prevalent in California during the 1980’s and 90’s. I was always instructed to never speak with “that woman”, but I was never told why. Of course, the moment I left the coven, I procured Ellen’s phone number through my pagan contacts.

I’ll never forget that conversation. I introduced myself brashly, “Hi. My name is Kaerwyn and I was told never to talk to you. I just left my coven [Name] and Priestess [Name] – have you heard of them?  And why am I not supposed to talk to you?”  


I thought I had a bad connection, but it was just a stunned Ellen. True to her nature and maturity as a Priestess – she began to talk to me and explain the history I was never afforded by my ex-coven.

Over time, we became friends. She and her husband Chris ran a pagan gathering called Pacific Circle every summer in the Angeles Crest Forest in the hills high above Los Angeles. Going was a highlight of my pagan life for 3 years until I moved to the Midwest in 1996. It was the first time I experienced people going Skyclad! OMG!

Ellen was the Priestess I continue to strive to be. She was a shoot-from-the-hip person, didn’t take any guff from anyone, she was fearless and above all she maintained her sense of humor. She didn’t sugar coat anything and was unrepentant about it all. She was a gifted writer, songwriter, pagan visionary and activist. Ellen gave so much to the pagan community, not just through her writing but through the various pagan organizations she belonged to, by teaching others, speaking at festivals/gatherings around the country and more. She always had time for new people in the Craft and told me often that they were the future of Witchcraft and we had an obligation to treat them with kindness and respect. She is the one who inspired me to work with new pagans through  my own personal outreach.

Beyond the Witches Tarot and the Witches Cabala, Ellen wrote “The Heart of Wicca” in 2000 which remains one of my favorite pagan books ever. She put her Tradition – Western Isian – on the map. She went through her share of heartaches, from living in a tent after the 1994 Northridge earthquake make her home unsafe to live in, to having troublesome students, to dealing with the progression of her leukemia, to experiencing the death of her dear friend (and one of my Sire Priestesses) Sandy Kopf. She weathered all of it with love and strength.

Most of all, I remember Ellen thusly – a swarthy woman with long dark hair, laughing, sitting around a campfire with Sandy, and calling me – me, a two-bit just-turned-initiate! – to come join them. I was excited, honored and scared! She gave me a mug of hot mulled cider (surreptitiously spiked with pear brandy) and I ended up having the best time ever, just chatting, laughing, singing and learning from Ellen.

That is the Ellen who remains in my memory and my heart.

They don’t make Priestesses like her anymore. I miss her to this day and I think I always will. Safe journeys, sistermine. And save me a glass of cider!

For another beautiful testimonial, go to:

Tuesday, October 6, 2009

Hail and Welcome!

So…after years of debating whether or not to do this, I’ve finally taken the plunge. Guess I should introduce myself.

I’m Kaerwyn Silverwood. I’m the High Priestess of Coven DragonVeil in Maryland, USA. We work with the 1734 Tradition, which is a British-American Tradition started by Joe Wilson ( and has its roots in Robert Cochrane’s teachings.

I have been active in the pagan community for about 25 years now, teaching Tarot, Divination, Witchcraft/Wicca and more. I am a tarot reader at Mystickal Voyage (who host most of my classes), located in Nottingham, MD. There’s really not a lot more to say about me. I’m a middle-aged Traditionalist Witch who enjoys crocheting and a nice cup of tea.

I started this blog because I write about what I know. Mine might not be the ONLY way of doing things, but it is the way I’ve been taught. I’ve written several articles (with a bunch still in the hopper) for Mystickal Voyage’s Museletter which I’ll be posting here on a regular basis. Several people have encouraged me to share these articles online for those who might not live in our area or who haven’t been able to them. I’m also looking forward to discourse with people around the pagan web!

So…that leaves me here, publishing my stuff on the big bad Intarwebz. And here you are reading it – which is important. Why write if people don’t want to read it? We are now partners in this endeavor – welcome aboard & hold on tight!

Perhaps this blog will be cathartic for me, and maybe someone might get a different perspective on an old topic. Maybe I’ll make some friends. Maybe I’ll have some really enlightening conversations with like minded pagans. Maybe I’ll get flamed. Either way, it’s an adventure, and one I’m happy to embark on.

Thanks for being part of this process, and here’s to a happy future!

     ¸.•´¸.•*´¨) ¸.•*¨) Flags, Flax & Fodder, ¸.•´¸.•*´¨) ¸.•*¨)
     (¸.•´ (¸.•`                    Kaerwyn             (¸.•´ (¸.•`